There are many fallen leaves on the ground.
This is a book written by a worker.
I was pleased at the news.
The door remained locked.
过去分词作表语，相当于形容词，常见的有：delighted, disappointed, astonished, interested, satisfied, surprised, tired, worried, excited, married 等。
The small village is surrounded by trees.(状态)
The small village was soon surrounded by enemy soldiers.(动作)
I'm interested in chess.(状态)
①表时间，相当于一个时间状语从句，有时过去分词前可加连词 when 或 while 来强调时间概念。
Seen from the top of the hill, the city looked like a big garden.
Accepted by the Party, he decided to devote his life to the cause of the Party.
Exhausted, the children fell asleep at once.
Encouraged by the speech, the young people made up their minds to take up the struggle.
③表条件，相当于一个条件状语从句，有时过去分词前可用 if 等词
Heated, water changes into steam.
Given another chance, he will do better.
Laughed at by many people, he continued his study.
Surrounded by a group of pupils, the old teacher walked into the classroom.
The trainer appeared, followed by five little dogs.
一、here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run。
There goes the bell. 铃声响了。
Then came the chairman. _来了。
Here is your letter. 你的信。
二、否定词置于句首，句子应进行倒装。 neither 放句首
Tod can't swim, neither can I. 托德不会游泳，我也不会。
用于 never, hardly, seldom, scarcely, barely, little, often, at no time, not only, not once, many a time 等词开头的句子。
Never shall I go there again. 我再也不去那了。
Little did he know who the woman was.他基本上不知道那女人是谁。
Seldom was he late for class.他很少上学迟到。
用于 no sooner ... than ..., hardly... when... 和 not until... 的句型中
Hardly had I reached the station when the train left. 我刚到车站,火车就离开了。
No sooner had she gone out than the phone rang. 她刚离开,电话就响了。
Not until the teacher came did he finish his homework. 直到老师来，他才完成作业。
三、用于 only 放句首，修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句的句子。
Only in this way can you master English well. 只有这种方法，你才能学好英语。
Only that time did he do his homework. 直到哪个时间，他才做作业。
Only when he told me did I realize what trouble I was in.
Mike said that he would come to school to see me the next day, but he didn't come to school to see me the next day.
Mike said that he would come to school to see me the next day, but he didn't.
John was the winner in 1994 and Bob in 1998.(Bob 后省略了 was the winner，句子结构显得比较紧凑)
Truth speaks too low, hypocrisy too loud.后一分句省略谓语 speaks，突出了 too loud)
Beg your pardon.请你原谅。(= I beg your pardon.))
Serves you right. 你活该(= It serves you right.)
Anything the matter? 要紧吗?(= Is anything the matter?)
The river was deep and the ice thin. 河很深，冰很薄。
(= The river was deep and the ice was thin.)
Are you ready? Yes,I am.(am 后面省略了表语 ready)
We have to analyze and solve problems. (analyze 后省略了宾语 problems)
Let's do the dishes. I'll wash and you'll dry.(wash 和 dry 后面省略了宾语 dishes)
He spent part of the money, and the rest he saved.(the rest 后面省略了定语 of the money)
(Even)The wisest man cannot know everything.
Like more beer?(= Would you like more beer?)
—World you mind if I used your telephone?
—Not at all. 一点也不。
(= I do not mind at all.)
—Will he pass this examination?
Probably. 大概会的。(= He will probably pass the examination.)
All aboard! 请上船(= All go aboard.省略谓语)
Haven't seen you for ages!(省略主语 I)
What about having a game of chess?
Sounds like a good idea.
(=It sounds like a good idea. 省略主语)
Everybody appears well prepared.
(= Everybady appears to be well prepared. 省略不定式 to be)
John likes collecting stamps but (John) hates listening to music.(省略主语)
We can (win tomorrow's match), and certainly will,win tomorrow's match.
我们能够，而且一定会在明天的比赛中获胜。(前一分句省略谓语 + 宾语)
They can (pay the full fee ) and (they)should pay the full fee.
省略主句的句首部分。(I'm)Sorry I couldn't go.
(It is a)Pity he's failed.
If he says he'll come, he will(come).
3.在一些状语从句中，如果谓语动词是 be，主语又和主句的主语一致，或者主语是 it，常常可以把从句中的主语和 be 省略掉。
以 when, while, once, until 等连词引导的时间状语从句。
When (you are) in Rome do as Rome does.入国问禁，入乡随俗。
James enjoys the theeartre more than Susun.
Tom has as many books as Jack.
Brown speaks French as fluently as English. (as 后省略了 he speaks)省略表语部分
Mrs White is not so young as she looks.(looks 后省略了 young)
He is working harder than before.(than 后省略了 he worked hard)
He drank a little more than was good for him.(than 后省略了 it)省略宾语
You spent more money than I had expected.(expected 后省略了that you should spend)
You are getting slimmer. simmer 后省略了than you were before)
The sooner (this is done), the better(it will be).
1. consist of = be made up of 由……组成 (没有进行时)
e.g. The UK consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
=Great Britain and Northern Ireland make up the UK.
Ø separate ... from (把联合在一起或靠近的人或物分离出来)
Ø divide...into 把…分开 (把整体分为若干部分)
e.g. The teacher divided the class into two groups.
The Taiwan Strait separates Taiwan from Fujian.
3. debate about sth.
e.g. They debate about the proposal for three days.
debate /argue/ quarrel
4. clarify: vt./vi. (cause sth. to )become clear or easier to understand 澄清;阐明;清楚;明了
e.g. I hope what I say will clarify the situation.
Can you clarify the question?
5. be linked to = be connected to /be joined to 连接
【习惯用语】★ link A to B 将A和B连接起来
6. refer to
e.g. When he said “some students”, do you think he was referring to us?
e.g. If you don't understand a word you may refer to your dictionaries.
Please refer to the last page of the book for answers.
e.g. What I have to say refers to all of you.
This rule refers to everyone.
reference: n. 参考 e.g. reference books 参考书
7. to one's surprise (prep)
“to one's + 名词” 表 “令某人……”
常见的名词有 “delight, disappointment, enjoyment, astonishment 等
e.g. I discovered, to my horror, that the goods were entirely unfit for sale.
To John's great relief they reached the house at last.
8. ... found themselves united peacefully
“find +宾语+宾补( adj; adv; v-ing; pp; 介词短语;不定式)”
e.g. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found smoking in the kitchen.
You'll find him easy to get along with.
They found themselves trapped by the bush fire.
When I woke up, I found myself in hospital.
I called on him yesterday, but I found him out.
9. get sth done =have sth done 使某事被做…….
e.g. I'll just get these dishes washed and then I'll come.
get + n. + to do
get + n. + doing
You'll get her to agree.
I'll get the car going.
get done: 用于意想不到、突然或偶然发生，意为“被…….”
e.g. Be careful when you cross this very busy street.
10. break away (from sb / sth) 脱离;破除…
e.g. It is not easy for him to break away from bad habits.
The man broke away from his guards.
break down (会谈)破裂，失败;(汽车等)出故障;(人的健康状况)变得恶劣;(情感)失控
e.g. His car broke down on the way to work this morning.
His health broke down under the pressure of work.
He broke down and wept when he heard the news.
Talks between the two countries have completely broken down.
Ø break in 闯入;打岔
Ø break off 中断，折断
Ø break into 闯入
Ø break out 爆发;发生
Ø break up 驱散;分散，拆散
11. as well as 不仅…而且;既…又…
e.g. He is a teacher as well as a writer.
The children as well as their father were seen playing football in the street.
12. convenience: n.方便;便利(convenient: adj. )
e.g. We bought this house for its convenience.
13. attraction: (attract: v.)
1). 吸引;引力(不可数 n.) e.g. attraction of gravitation 重力
2). 吸引人的东西;喜闻乐见的东西;精彩节目(可数 n.)
He can't resist the attraction of the sea on a hot day.
A big city offers many and varied attractions.
What are the principle attractions this evening?
1) v. 对…产生影响 e.g. What influence you to choose a career in teaching?
2)可数n. 产生影响的人或事 e.g. He is one of the good influences in the school.
3) (不可数n.) 影响 e.g. A teacher has great influence over his pupils.